Roberts-Borsani (2020), MNRAS, 494, 4266
"Observational Constraints on the Multiphase Nature of Outflows Using Large Spectroscopic Surveys at z∼0"
Mass outflow rates and loading factors are typically used to infer the quenching potential of galactic-scale outflows. However, these generally rely on observations of a single gas phase which can severely underestimate the total ejected gas mass. To address this, we use observations of high mass (>1010M☉), normal star-forming galaxies at z∼0 from the MaNGA, xCOLD GASS, xGASS and ALFALFA surveys and a stacking of NaD, Hα, CO(1-0) and HI 21cm tracers with the aim of placing constraints on an average, total mass outflow rate and loading factor. We find detections of outflows in both neutral and ionised gas tracers, with no detections in stacks of molecular or atomic gas emission. Combining the detections and upper limits, we find average total outflow rates of <27 M☉/yr and a loading factor of η<6.39, with molecular gas likely contributing <72% of the total mass outflow rate, and neutral and ionised gas contributing ~28% and <1%, respectively. Our results suggest that, to first order, a degree of quenching via ejective feedback could occur in normal galaxies when considering all gas phases, even in the absence of an AGN.